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Consultancy and services


Technical feasibility and profit analyses of plant systems in the field of renewable energy production

Prof. Stefano Consonni

Regarding the theme of energy production from renewable sources, LEAP carries out studies and evaluations of the technical characteristics of plant, analyses of cost and environmental sustainability, and identification of possible plant locations.  These activities are aimed especially at biomass, photovoltaic solar and wind energy.

The group working at the laboratory (including professors and researchers from the Dept. of Energy of Milan Polytechnic) also works in the field of bioenergy, with comparative evaluations of production lines in terms of energy produced, avoided emission of greenhouse gases, financial benefits.  The tools and expertise the research group have developed can be summarised as follows:
  • Development of ad hoc conceptual and physical models for identifying biomass availability and its ecologically-sustainable collection.
  • Evaluation of alternative uses of biomass available locally, and identification of conflict in terms of land use for agricultural or energy purposes.
  • Identification of the best available technology in terms of the end energy vector (electricity, heat, fuel).
  • Energy conversion plant modelling and simulation, with evaluation of technological, energy, environmental and financial implications.
  • Development of ad hoc models (similar to life cycle analysis) for the evaluation of production lines, from source to final use of energy and disposal of byproducts, in terms of energy, emissions and costs.

The methodology developed by LEAP for biomass has already been used in Emilia Romagna, Lombardy and Sicily.


Analysis of electric energy systems for technical and cost evaluation of electrical plant with special reference to distributed generation with traditional and renewable sources

In the field of analysis of electric systems for energy, the LEAP Consortium carries out studies and evaluations on the state of power flows in electricity grids, on the evaluation of short circuit currents, on the regulation of generators for the stability and control of systems generating, transmitting and distributing electricity.  A LEAP research group (including faculty staff from the Dept. of Energy at Milan Polytechnic) is especially interested in the field of the impact of distributed generation on the system, both in terms of the safety, management and control of the system and of the quality of the energy.

The tools and skills the research group have developed may be summarised as follows:

  • Development of models and calculation codes for optimising generator efficiency (including renewable sources) in relation to the need to regulate the electricity grid.
  • Evaluation of the impact of distributed generation on distribution grids with special reference to protection systems for automised management of the electricity grid.
  • Development of models for the analysis of the propagation of disturbance in electricity grids and for testing energy quality.
  • Development of models for interface convertors between the electricity grid and renewable source generation systems with optimisation of the control system and improvement in electromagnetic compatibility.



Suction pyrometers for measuring temperatures in post-combustion chambers

The laboratory has advanced instruments for carrying out accurate measurements of fume temperatures of up to 1600°C in combustion chambers, for builders and operators of waste-to-energy plant and large steam generators:

3 suction pyrometers, nominal length 4,000 mm
3 suction pyrometers, nominal length 2,000 mm

The temperature of the gases in the post-combustion area of urban/municipal solid waste waste-to-energy plant needs to be measured continuously to limit the presence of polluting compounds in the flue fumes.
The use of suction pyrometers permits accurate measurement of the temperature, maximising the thermal exchange coefficient between gas and measurement element and minimising thermal exchange by radiation between measurement element and non-adiabatic walls in the post-combustion chamber.

The regulating of plant instruments by means of suction pyrometers ensures improved control of the post-combustion temperature, in accordance with regulations in force.


Measuring of ultrafine dust and nano particles in flue emissions and in the atmosphere

Prof. Stefano Cernuschi
Prof. Michele Giugliano

LEAP has avantgarde instruments for measuring the concentration of fine and extrafine dust (PM2.5 and PM1) and nano particles (to 5-7 nm) in flue gases, in the atmosphere and in the work environment. The concentrations and size distributions in number of particles are measured using an ELPI® (Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor, Dekati Ltd), able to provide the concentration in number of particles and the corresponding granulometric distribution in 12 classes in the 0,007 - 10 µm size range continuously (response time less than 5 secs).
The instrument’s configuration also allows for the collection of material on supports permitting its chemical and morphological description.

Benchmarks are taken using a probe combined with a mechanism for dilution with pre-treated ambient air for the evaluation of condensation effects of volatile and semivolatile species on the emissive level of the dust found.


Measuring of pollutants in gas flows in flues

Prof. Stefano Cernuschi
Prof. Michele Giugliano

The laboratory can measure pollutants in gas flows in flues from fixed combustion and industrial processes.  LEAP has recently-designed sampling equipment for the measurement of ultrafine dust and nano-dust, and equipment for the continuous measuring of the main parameters and pollutants of combustion, including an analyser with chromatographic separation techniques for the disaggregated evaluation of the presence of total volatile hydrocarbons (TVHC) in methane (CH4) and non-methane compounds (TNMVHC).  The LEAP boiler test bench, equipped for testing small household boilers of between 4 and 100 kW for heating and/or producing hot water, can also be used for this purpose.